Ras al-Khaimah is one of the Persian Gulf Arab sheikhdoms forming the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its name means "Top of the Tent". The emirate is in the northern part of the UAE, bordering Oman's exclave of Musandam. It covers an area of 1,684 square km. The capital city and home of most residents is also called Ras Al Khaimah. The emirate had a population of 210,063 at the 2005 Census, of which 41.82 percent or 87,848 were Emirati citizens. Latest estimates put the total population at between 250,000 and 300,000. Locals accounted for 97,529 in the population estimate for 2010. The city has two main sections, Old Ras Al Khaimah and Nakheel, on either side of a creek. It is served by the Ras Al Khaimah International Airport. It consists of a northern part (where the city of Ras al-Khaimah is situated), and a large exclave in the south (near Hatta), and a few small islands in the Persian Gulf.
Important towns, settlements and areas include:
Al Jazirah Al Hamra – an old coastal town with numerous real estate projects and industrial zone
Ar-Rams – a coastal town; in the past, a typical fishing and pearl-diving village
Khawr Khuwayr – an industrial zone, with the largest port in Ras al-Khaimah and numerous companies such as a cement factory
Diqdaqah – a village known for agriculture activities
Khatt – a village surrounded by the mountains, famous for its thermal springs and palm gardens
Masafi – a town in the south, on the border with Fujairah; well known for drinking water
Huwaylat – a central village in the south
Ras al-Khaimah has been the site of human habitation for several millennia and there are many historical and archaeological sites throughout the emirate dating from different time periods, including remnants of the Umm an-Nar Culture (3rd millennium BC). Ancient graves were found in the Emirate in October 2012.
The city was historically known as Julfar. Archaeological evidence has demonstrated that the settlement known as Julfar shifted location over time as harbour channels silted up. Excavations of a sizable tell, which revealed remnants of a Sassanid era fortification, indicate that early Julfar was located in the Shamal area, not far from other sites of historical/archaeological interest such as Sheba's Palace and the largest Umm an-Nar tombs found on the Arabian Peninsula. Sources say that Julfar was inhabited by the Azd (a branch of the Kahlan tribe) during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, and that the houses of the Azd were built of wood.
In the early 18th century, the Al Qasimi clan established itself in Ras Al Khaimah on the Arab Peninsula. In 1819, a British naval force was sent from Bombay in order to suppress piracy that affected shipping in the Strait of Hormuz, along the Persian Gulf coast, and the Indian Ocean. In the Battle of Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, the pirate fleet was largely destroyed. Hasan Bin Rahma, whom the Saudis had put in control of Ras Al Khaimah by deposing Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi, surrendered and was deposed, unable to count on Saudi support because Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt had destroyed the First Saudi State in the Nejd Expedition of 1817-1818.
The British operation continued to Linga on the Persian coast that was like the Greater and Lesser Tunbs islands administered by the Al Qasimi on behalf of Persia. The attack on Ras Al Khaimah resulted in the destruction of the tower of the 16th century Dhayah Fort whose remains can be seen at Rams in northern Ras Al Khaimah. In January of the following year, the British imposed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 signed by Sheikh Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi who was reinstated by the British in Ras Al Khaimah after Hasan Bin Rahma had been deposed. The treaty stipulated the end of piracy and slavery, and laid the foundation for the British protectorate over the Trucial States that lasted until 1971. In 1869, Ras Al Khaimah became fully independent from neighbouring Sharjah. However, from September 1900 to 7 July 1921, it was re-incorporated into Sharjah; the last governor became its next independent ruler.
On 10 February 1972, Ras al-Khaimah, under the leadership of Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi, joined the United Arab Emirates.
Its rulers were:
17??–17??: Sheikh Rahma Al Qasimi
17??–174?: Sheikh Matar bin Rahma Al Qasimi
174?–1777: Sheikh Rashid bin Matar Al Qasimi
1777–1803: Sheikh Saqr bin Rashid Al Qasimi
1803–1808: Sheikh Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi (died 1866) (1st time)
1808–1814: Sheikh Hasan bin `Ali Al Anezi
1814–1820: Sheikh Hasan bin Rahma
1820–1866: Sheikh Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi (2nd time)
1866 – May 1867: Sheikh Ibrahim bin Sultan Al Qasimi
May 1867 – 14 April 1868: Sheikh Khalid bin Sultan Al Qasimi (died 1868)
14 April 1868 – 1869: Sheikh Salim bin Sultan Al Qasimi (18??–1919)
1869 – August 1900: Sheikh Humayd bin Abdullah Al Qasimi (died 1900)
September 1900 – 1909: Currently Unknown
1909 – August 1919: Sheikh Salim bin Sultan Al Qasimi
August 1919 – 10 July 1921: Sheikh Sultan bin Salim Al Qasimi (1891–19??), who stayed on as the first of its own rulers.
10 July 1921 – Feb 1948: Sheikh Sultan bin Salim Al Qasimi
17 July 1948 – 27 October 2010: Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi (1918–2010)
27 October 2010 – current: Sheikh Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi
The heir apparent is currently Muhammad Bin Saud Al Qasimi, son of the current Emir.
In 1975, the total population of Ras Al Khaimah was 43,845 of which 29,613 were nationals and 14,232 were foreigners. This figure increased to 73,918 (39,148 locals; 34,770 foreigners) in 1980, 96,578 in 1985, 143,334 in 1995, and 210,063 in 2005. The current total population is estimated to be between 250,000 and 300,000 people, nationals and foreigners.
Ras al-Khaimah's desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) is hot and arid with very hot summers and mild winters. The average temperature is 18 to 25 °C (64 to 77 °F) in January and 29 to 43 °C (84 to 109 °F) in July. However, temperatures often reach 45 °C in the summer; the highest recorded temperature is 48.8 °C (119.8 °F). The humidity is usually high in the summer months. Rains and thunderstorms occur rarely, and only in winter. Snow has been reported twice, once in each of December 2004 and January 2009, in the high mountains of Ras al-Khaimah.
Not being a producer of oil, Ras al-Khaimah has focused on developing its industrial sector. As of 1920, Ras al-Khaimah was mining iron ore.
Main economic sectors
Real Estate – numerous residential areas, offices, commercial buildings are constructed in Ras al-Khaimah.
Tourism – Ras al-Khaimah is becoming a new destination on tourist maps. Ras al-Khaimah is home to five star hotels and beach resorts including Hilton, Rotana or Banyan Tree. It has a number of 4 and 3 star accommodations. In September 2010, first water park Ice Land was opened to offer leisure opportunity for both residents and visitors and more new tourism projects are under construction.
Building materials – Ras al-Khaimah opened the UAE's first cement company in the early 1970s and is now the UAE's largest producer of cement. In the 1980s, the emirate formed Ras al-Khaimah Ceramics, which has become one of the world's largest ceramics producer.
Manufacturing and High-Tech Industry – In the 1980s, the emirate formed Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries (Julphar), the Persian Gulf region's first pharmaceuticals company. Falcon Technologies International (FTI) represents high-tech industry and produces optical storage media (CDR,DVDR, BDR). In 2012, Innovative Composite Engineering was established in the Industrial Free-zone to manufacture high end composite products (aerospace, construction parts).
Service sector – recently growing sector with its prominent RAK Bank and RAK Insurance companies.
Agriculture and Fisheries – in the past, these were the main economy sectors of Ras al-Khaimah. Nowadays they are still significant providing foodstuff not only for the Emirate but for the whole country.
Taxation and companies law
New legislation and regulations favour international investments. The combination of security and confidentiality is ensured to entrepreneurs. An international company may only have foreign customers and is not liable for paying local taxes. It can open a local bank account, make investments tax-free, and obtain mortgages for investing in UAE assets. Employment visas are available. When approved, this type of company can own property in UAE free-trade zones.
No income, sales, or wealth taxes are payable by individuals. No corporate taxes are charged. In addition, there are no exchange controls, no withholding nor import or export taxes.
The annual Ras al-Khaimah Half Marathon, first held in 2007, has called the attention of the world's sporting media to the region. The organisers invest much in the IAAF-labeled race in order to attract the world's top athletes, resulting in a world record from Samuel Wanjiru in 2007 and the second fastest run of all-time from Patrick Makau Musyoki in 2009.
UAE Awafi Festival – a yearly festival in the Ras al-Khaimah desert, focusing mainly on the Arabic public. It is a three-week event, held in December or January, the main attraction being a dramatic sand dune race by the strongest 4-wheel drivers of the UAE. There is a heritage village with traditional food and dance, as well as shops for food and souvenirs. There is also a petting zoo and lots of games for children. The entry is free of charge, and many families bring picnics to enjoy whilst watching the cars battling it out over the sand dunes.
Terry Fox Run RAK – a yearly charity run organized in Ras al-Khaimah to support cancer research in the UAE. The first event was organized in 2010 (short movie from 1st RAKTFR event).
Within Ras al-Khaimah city, the main mode of transport are metered taxis, with public buses operating on long-haul routes and catering mainly to smaller towns (e.g. Sha`am, Ar-Rams, and Al Jazirah Al Hamra). A cheap local bus service in Ras al-Khaimah city was due to be launched by 15 June 2010 to ease transport for low-income-earners. The first will be between the jumbo intersection in Al Nakheel and Sha’am village. It will have eight stops and buses will take 80 minutes to cover the distance. The second route will start from Al Nakheel and run via Airport Road, Diqdaqah, and Khatt, then turn south to Al Tawain and Adhen on the Fujairah – Ras al-Khaimah border. The third route going to the industrial areas – from the city to Al Jazirah Al Hamra, Ras al-Khaimah Industrial Area, and the Al Ghail Industrial Area – was to begin in July, 2010.
Ras al-Khaimah is connected to the other emirates by taxis which often embark from the taxi-stand located south of Al Dhaid near the new Ras al-Khaimah Police Headquarters.
Three dual-carriageways link Ras al-Khaimah with the other emirates and beyond. One follows the coast with beaches on one side and stretches of desert on the other; the other, a new route, runs out towards the airport in the direction of Khatt, Masafi, Fujairah, Dhaid, and eventually Oman.
The Emirates Road (E311 Highway) traverses the emirates of Umm Al Quwain, Ajman (60 km) and Sharjah (71 km) to finally end up in Dubai (87 km). The highway allows journeys from Ras al-Khaimah to Dubai in under 45 minutes. The highway is being extended further till Saqr Port to allow direct flow of traffic from the southern emirates, the extension is scheduled to be completed by 2014. In spring 2013 work on the 32-kilometre RAK Ring Road which will bypass the city and connect the quarries and factories of the north coast with the 311 motorway was held up by a three-month rescue excavation after the discovery of megalithic tombs dating to the Wadi Suq period, from 2000 to 1600BC.
Saqr Port, located in the industrial area of Khawr Khuwayr, is the emirate's main port, providing bulk and container services. It has eight deep-water berths, each 200 m long, is dredged to 12.2 m and has two "ro-ro" ramps plus specialised berths for handling bulk cement and aggregate. Other services include ship-handling, crew changes, and 40,000 m2 of covered storage, together with a vast open storage area. It is also the closest port in the UAE to Bandar Abbas, Iran, but there is no shipping from Saqr port to Bandar Abbas.
Ras al-Khaimah International Airport is currently undergoing an upgrade. It operates cargo and passenger services to a variety of destinations covering the Middle East, North & East Africa, Central Asia, India, and the Far East.
On 17 February 2006, Space Adventures announced its plans to develop a $265 million commercial spaceport in Ras al-Khaimah for space tourism.
Also on the same year, RAK Airways was founded and launched operations in early 2007 with two Boeing 757-200 aircraft.
Notable landmarks in Ras al-Khaimah include:
The National Museum of Ras al-Khaimah: housed in the former palace of the ruling Al Qasimi family, with exhibits on natural history, arts and crafts of previous centuries, and archaeology
Dhayah Fort: the only surviving hilltop fort in the UAE
Sheba's Palace: ruins of a medieval palace
Al Falayah: the former summer residence of the ruling Al Qawasim family
Al Jazirah Al Hamra: an abandoned "ghost town" showing the preserved architecture of an early 20th-century pearling port
The Old City and Souq: both traditional and modern shops as well as artisan’s workshops
Bab Al Bahr: Pyramid inspired buildings along Ras Al Khaimah's coastal line
Waldorf Astoria - Ras Al Khaimah: The Middle Eastern venture of the legendary Waldorf Astoria of New York.